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Advanced Placement
American History
The Presidents


Washington Lincoln FDR

Jefferson Jackson
Polk T. Roosevelt
Wilson Truman

J. Adams Monroe
Cleveland McKinley
Eisenhower JFK LBJ

Tyler Taylor
Fillmore Coolidge

Pierce Buchanan
A. Johnson Grant
Harding Hoover Nixon

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., 1996
  1. Lincoln
  2. FDR
  3. Washington
  4. Jefferson
  5. T. Roosevelt
  6. Wilson
  7. Truman
  8. Jackson
  9. Eisenhower
10. Madison
11. Polk
12. LBJ
13. Monroe
14. J. Adams
15. JFK
   • • •
37. Pierce
38. Grant
39. A. Johnson
40. Buchanan
41. Harding

William J. Ridings, Jr. & Stuart B. McIver, 1997
Washington Jefferson
Lincoln FDR

Jackson T. Roosevelt
Wilson Truman

J. Adams Madison
Monroe J. Q. Adams
Polk Cleveland
Eisenhower JFK LBJ

Tyler Taylor Fillmore Pierce Buchanan
A. Johnson Coolidge Nixon

Grant Harding

William A. McClenaghan, 1997
   1. Lincoln
   2. Washington
   3. FDR
   4. Jefferson
   5. T. Roosevelt
   6. Wilson
   7. Truman
   8. Jackson
   9. Polk
(tie) Eisenhower

   1. Harding
   2. Buchanan
   3. Pierce
   4. Grant
   5. A. Johnson
   6. Fillmore
   7. Nixon
   8. Tyler
   9. Coolidge
 10. Hoover

James MacGregor Burns, et al., 2000

  Clearly important accomplishment which produced decidedly positive results (immediate and eventual) affecting
       widespread America; highly praised among historians with little or no exception.
  Historically noteworthy event; however, historians bestow mixed judgments regarding the outcomes, or the effects
       are inherently awkward to assign any sort of blanket evaluation.
  Represents major shortcoming within this presidential administration; the action is routinely questioned or openly
       criticized by historians due to evident flaws.

Abraham Lincoln    Republican / Illinois (ST)

At the onset of the tumultuous 1850s, "Conscience" and "Cotton" factions of the Whig Party effected sectional cleavage. The void in the national two-party system created by the dysfunctional Whigs was erased by the Republican Party. The Republicans were committed to blocking expansion of slavery (but not abolitionism), easy availability of land to westward settlers, support of manufacturing interests through a protective tariff, federal funding for internal improvements of national stature (namely a transcontinental railway), and limitless immigration. In 1856, the Republican Party named John Frémont its first presidential candidate. So utterly repulsed was the South by the Republican Party's standards that the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 caused immediate movement by several southern states toward secession.

"Next to the destruction of the Confederacy, the death of Abraham Lincoln was the
 darkest day the South has ever known."
—Confederacy President Jefferson Davis 

  Homestead Act (1862)
  Pacific Railway Act (1862)
  Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862)
  Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
  Preserved secession-threatened United States

FUN FACT #1: Lincoln was the first President born in a state other than the original thirteen!
FUN FACT #2: Lincoln's chief opponent in the 1864 election was the Union general (George B. McClellan) he twice dismissed!

Andrew Johnson    Democrat / Tennessee (DS)

"Johnson, we have faith in you. By the gods, there will be no trouble now in running
 this government."
—Ohio Senator Benjamin Wade 

  So-called "Reconstruction Amendments"
  Purchased Alaska from Russia (1867)
  Subjected to unwarranted impeachment charges / politically inept (1868)

FUN FACT #1: Johnson was the only southern Senator to oppose secession!
FUN FACT #2: Tennessee re-elected Johnson to the Senate after he left the presidency!

William Howard Taft    Republican / Ohio (RC)

"No tendency is quite so strong in human nature as the desire to lay down rules of
 conduct for other people."
—President William Howard Taft 

  Unable to continue predecessor's Progressive flurry despite stout effort
  Exercised "dollar diplomacy" toward Latin America
  Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
  Mann-Elkins Act (1910)
  Ballinger-Pinchot controversy (1910)
  Arizona & New Mexico statehoods complete continental United States (1912)
  Webb-Kenyon Interstate Liquor Shipments Act (1913)

FUN FACT #1: Taft was our heaviest President!
FUN FACT #2: Taft is the only President to also serve as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court!

Back to Washington thru Buchanan                        Ahead to Harding thru Obama

"Elected"   by Alice Cooper