Period Nine: 1980 thru 2001 +

The following multiple-choice questions are academically synonymous to those which appeared on the College Board Advanced Placement National Examination in United States History prior to 2015. They have been adapted from past National Exams, various College Board matter offering sample questions, and assorted APUSH review manuals widely available through common retail outlets. No item is an exact copy of any material previously published. The questions address political, social, economic, intellectual, and diplomatic history. While the multiple-choice format currently used by the College Board deviates from the conventional style, the items included here can nevertheless serve as effective learning support. This review set is intended for private use and educational purpose only and may not be sold or marketed in any manner.

DIRECTIONS: Using knowledge obtained through class lecture and assigned reading, coupled with the ability to reason logically, select the best response from among the four suggested completions for each statement.

  1. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan were similar as presidential candidates in that both

    1. capitalized on their status as Washington outsiders.
    2. articulated the American public's desire for less involvement in foreign affairs.
    3. had solid reputations as legislators reflected through their lengthy service in Congress.
    4. promised to support measures to increase federal control over numerous domestic matters.

  2. The foreign policy issue which plagued the presidency of Jimmy Carter was the

    1. Bay of Pigs invasion.
    2. loss of American commandos in Somalia.
    3. Iranian hostage crisis.
    4. bombing of the United States embassy in Lebanon.

  3. The Republican Party's "Contract with America" of the 1990s called for all of the following measures EXCEPT

    1. tougher crime laws.
    2. increased defense spending.
    3. lower taxes.
    4. welfare reform.

  4. The main reason the United States sent troops to Somalia in 1992 was to

    1. escort refugees out of Somalia to other countries.
    2. monitor government elections.
    3. block drug smuggling to the Western Hemisphere.
    4. protect deliveries of food and relief supplies to needy Somalis.

  5. In conducting international affairs, President Ronald Reagan

    1. favored a more active and assertive role for the United States in opposing communism throughout the world.
    2. denounced Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost.
    3. sought to pressure friendly dictatorship governments to enact internal democratic reforms.
    4. pursued a policy of détente with the Soviet Union, constantly seeking additional arms control agreements.

  6. The issue President Jimmy Carter called "the moral equivalent of war" was the

    1. energy shortage.
    2. Iranian hostage crisis.
    3. extent of poverty in America.
    4. sagging economy.


  7. The message conveyed by the 2002 drawing above was that

    1. recent Supreme Court rulings have skewed the relationship between national funding of public education and expected performance standards.
    2. education resources provided by the federal government are being mishandled in many states.
    3. there exists a growing discrepancy between dollars allocated for education and expectations of teachers and the educational system in America.
    4. no positive correlation occurs between academic achievement and resources provided for education.

  8. One of the goals of Reaganomics was to

    1. outsource United States manufacturing to Asian countries.
    2. redistribute income to the bottom fifth of wage earners.
    3. encourage private investment through tax cuts for businesses and the wealthy.
    4. cut the national debt by reducing the United States nuclear arsenal.

  9. Which statement best reflects the George W. Bush administration's basic philosophical reconfiguration of American foreign policy regarding international enemies?

    1. "The United States held both right and responsibility to spread freedom throughout the world not just by example but through military force if necessary."
    2. "The United States labored to contain its global adversaries, but would not participate in deliberate attack or clandestine activity to topple enemy regimes."
    3. "The chief role of the United States, in all cases, was to maintain stability and world order, which should always supersede any other international objective."
    4. "The United States should endeavor to work closely with the United Nations and other global entities to achieve America's goals without taking unilateral military action."

  10. In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, President Jimmy Carter did all of the following EXCEPT

    1. imposed economic sanctions on the Soviet Union.
    2. withdrew SALT II from consideration by the Senate.
    3. invoked the SEATO alliance.
    4. called for a boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.

  11. One of the concerns over the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 was

    1. many Americans felt the measure threatened individual privacy rights.
    2. the law permitted censorship of newspapers as well as television and radio broadcasts.
    3. membership in subversive organizations, such as the Socialist Party, was banned.
    4. the measure allowed for an automatic military draft if the President declared a national emergency.

  12. The executive agency created by the George W. Bush administration was the

    1. Department of Homeland Security.
    2. Federal Reserve Board.
    3. Environmental Protection Agency.
    4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  13. Which statement best summarizes how the United States responded to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990?

    1. "The United States organized an international coalition including countries from the Middle East to liberate Kuwait."
    2. "After NATO's refusal to lend military support, the United States appealed to its allies outside NATO for assistance."
    3. "The United States acted unilaterally in Operation Desert Storm."
    4. "America refused to engage Iraq in any military action, instead working strictly through diplomatic channels to bring resolution."

  14. The high point of Jimmy Carter's presidency was

    1. implementation of SALT II despite uproar in Congress concerning the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
    2. his mediation between Egypt and Israel resulting in the Camp David Accords.
    3. the direct resolution of the PATCO strike with little adverse effect on consumer airline travel.
    4. ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.

  15. The 9/11 terrorist attack on New York City in 2001 resulted in all of the followng EXCEPT

    1. increased security measures at all levels of government for large-scale public access sites and events, such as airports and public entertainment venues.
    2. rush by American citizens to construct personal fall-out shelters for self and family.
    3. nativism and public paranoia resulting in isolated horrific acts of pure racism.
    4. crescendo of American spirit and patriotism, including public moments of silence to honor victims, benefit events to aid survivors and victims' families, and noticeable display of American flags.

  16. The most significant increase in immigration during the 1990s came from

    1. southeast Asia and Latin America.
    2. Asia and southern Europe.
    3. the Middle East and the Caribbean.
    4. Africa and eastern Europe.

  17. The 2000 presidential election was especially notable because

    1. character attacks and mud-slinging, relatively minimal since the 1960s, were suddenly common and enthusiastic.
    2. it was the first time a major political party nominated a female for Vice-President.
    3. apparent voting irregularities in Florida marred the election outcome which was ultimately determined by the Supreme Court.
    4. both candidates—Democrat and Republican—failed to win their home states.

  18. Which of the following economic conditions did NOT result under President Ronald Reagan?

    1. Congress made significant reforms in the nation's tax laws by simplifying tax formulas and reducing taxes.
    2. The gulf between affluent and poor was widened.
    3. Social services were significantly reduced as a result of budget cuts.
    4. The budget deficit narrowed measurably in accordance with Reagan's promise to balance the federal budget.


  19. According to the illustration, the major focus of President Barack Obama's national health care plan was

    1. making medical care more affordable for low-income Americans.
    2. increasing the number of people who have health care.
    3. assuring quality health care to rural Americans.
    4. improving the overall standard of medical care in the United States.

  20. Which statement about the Barack Obama presidency is NOT true?

    1. "The national unemployment rate dropped below the historic norm."
    2. "Almost from the outset of Obama's presidency, political party differences were minimized, enabling Congress to work in a nonpartisan manner toward meaningful national goals."
    3. "In 2009, Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize based on his advocacy of nuclear nonproliferation and a new look in American international relations, especially in reaching out to the Muslim world."
    4. "Obama angered many states due to his steep use of executive power to determine immigration policy."

  21. The 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City most closely mirrored which earlier military engagement in American history?

    1. General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware.
    2. Defeat of Texas revolutionaries at the Alamo.
    3. Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor.
    4. Attack on USS Maddox by North Vietnamese forces in the Gulf of Tonkin.

  22. All of the following produced sharp declines in presidential popularity EXCEPT

    1. Gerald Ford's pardon of former President Richard Nixon for his part in the Watergate scandal.
    2. the Iran-Contra weapons-for-hostages arrangement, which apparently transpired without White House knowledge during the final years of Ronald Reagan's presidency.
    3. inability of the Carter administration to solve the prolonged Iranian hostage crisis.
    4. the bold American military invasion of Panama, ordered by George H. W. Bush, which resulted in the capture of drug-trafficking General Manuel Noriega and installation of a new Panamanian government.