Test  Your  Knowledge
The Cold War
The Counterculture Era
The Vietnam Conflict
The Civil Rights Movement
The Conservative Tide
The New Millennium

The following multiple-choice questions are academically synonymous to those which appeared on the College Board Advanced Placement National Examination in United States History prior to 2015. They have been adapted from past National Exams, various College Board matter offering sample questions, and assorted APUSH review manuals widely available through common retail outlets. No item is an exact copy of any material previously published. The questions address political, social, economic, intellectual, and diplomatic history. While the multiple-choice format currently used by the College Board deviates from the conventional style, the items included here can nevertheless serve as effective learning support. This review set is intended for private use and educational purpose only and may not be sold or marketed in any manner.

  DIRECTIONS: Using knowledge obtained through class lecture and assigned reading, coupled with the ability
  to reason logically, select the best response from among the four suggested completions for each statement.

  1. One key diplomatic achievement of Richard Nixon's presidency was:

    1. the first joint Apollo-Soyuz space mission with the Soviet Union
    2. signing of the Helsinki Accords
    3. traveling to China in early 1972
    4. extending formal diplomatic recognition to unified Vietnam

  2. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan were similar as presidential candidates in that both:

    1. promised to support measures to increase federal control over numerous domestic matters
    2. capitalized on their status as Washington outsiders
    3. articulated the American public's desire for less involvement in foreign affairs
    4. had solid reputations as legislators reflected through their lengthy service in Congress

  3. The high inflation rates of the late 1960s and early 1970s were largely the result of:

    1. deregulation of many major industries
    2. combined spending on the Vietnam War as well as social-welfare programs
    3. flawed economic measures dating back to the New Deal of the 1930s
    4. numerous state and federal tax increases

  4. The deep divisions within the American public during 1968 were demonstrated by all of the following except:

    1. shooting deaths of four students at Kent State University by Ohio National Guardsmen
    2. votes generated by the presidential campaign of Governor George Wallace
    3. assassinations of Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    4. so-called "police riots" at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago

  5. The Tet Offensive of 1968 during the Vietnam War demonstrated that:

    1. the Vietcong could attack major cities throughout South Vietnam
    2. negotiated settlement of the war was in the near future
    3. American military strategy was working
    4. the army of South Vietnam was in control of the South

  6. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded in 1966 for the purpose of:

    1. challenging sex discrimination in the workplace
    2. advocating equal access for women to athletic facilities
    3. encouraging women to enlist in the armed forces
    4. opposing restrictions regarding access to abortion


  7. The intent of the cartoon above is to show that:

    1. President Ronald Reagan courted many significant programs, often changing emphasis from one to another to appease certain members of Congress
    2. so inept was Secretary of State George Shultz that President Ronald Reagan was compelled to assume a disproportionate share of foreign policy making, often at the expense of various social concerns
    3. most scientists and military experts predicted that the so-called "Star Wars" package would prove to be a successful Cold War defense mechanism
    4. President Ronald Reagan's budget cuts fell almost entirely on social programs, whereas military outlays increased substantially

  8. The foreign policy issue which plagued the presidency of Jimmy Carter was the:

    1. botched Bay of Pigs invasion
    2. loss of American commandos in Somalia
    3. Iranian hostage crisis
    4. bombing of the United States embassy in Lebanon

  9. The 1962 book that helped launch the national environmental movement was:

    1. Howl, by Allen Ginsberg
    2. Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson
    3. Go Ask Alice, by Grace Slick
    4. Blind Eye, by James Stewart

  10. The announced purpose of the Marshall Plan was to:

    1. reduce the dependence of the European economy on overseas empires
    2. stabilize world economies
    3. aid the economic recovery of war-torn Europe
    4. maintain the United States position as the world's leading creditor nation

  11. Of the following, the most damaging factor to the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election was its identification with:

    1. economic hard times
    2. the Vietnam War
    3. racial equality
    4. environmental decay

  12. The statement which best reflects the findings of the Kerner Commission regarding inner-city unrest culminating in riots such as that which occurred in the Watts district of Los Angeles during 1965 is:

    1. "interracial violence is rooted in deteriorating urban conditions (poverty, unemployment, and poor schooling) and hatred of white police as symbols of authority"
    2. "heated racial problems are confined to regions of the country that had been heavily involved in slavery"
    3. "violence usually results from friction between white police officers, often racist, and black youths; hence, stronger commitment to law and order is needed to prevent racial violence"
    4. "no government action, presently authorized or conceivably hopeful, could effectively alter the racial tension in America because it has become so deeply and irreversibly ingrained during the course of an entire century of events"

  13. The initial response of the United States to the outbreak of war in Korea was to:

    1. seek collective action against North Korea through the United Nations
    2. request a summit meeting with the Soviet Union
    3. increase American aid to Indochina to meet the threat of communist aggression
    4. pursue cooperation with the People's Republic of China to end the fighting

  14. "The stated purpose of this group, formed in 1966 in Oakland, was to protect the ghetto blacks against 'police harassment.' Claiming to be opposed to violence except in cases of 'self-defense,' this organization affected a paramilitary stance, wearing similar attire and prominently displaying guns. Its leadership labeled the existing American system 'racist, fascist, and imperialist.' Its members often clashed with police." The radical group described is the:

    1. Black Berets
    2. Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
    3. Black Panthers
    4. Negro League

  15. President John F. Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis accomplished all of the following except:

    1. preserved world peace by avoiding an immediate threat of nuclear war
    2. restored America's national honor in the wake of recent international humiliations
    3. gave rise to internal forces opposed to communism in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Romania
    4. silenced many critics of United States actions in the Cold War

  16. College students in Greensboro, North Carolina, organized a sit-in at a Woolworth's store luncheonette in 1960 to protest:

    1. segregation of public facilities
    2. escalation of the Vietnam War
    3. the murders of three white college-student activists in rural Mississippi
    4. federal cutbacks in student financial aid

  17. All of the following descriptions about the economy during the presidential administration of Jimmy Carter are correct except:

    1. inflation
    2. rising unemployment
    3. increased union membership
    4. more government spending

  18. "The reasons for the failures of the Chinese National Government appear in some detail in the attached record. They do not stem from any inadequacy of American aid. Our military observers on the spot have reported that Nationalist armies did not lose a single battle during the crucial year of 1948 through lack of arms or ammunition. The fact was that the decay which our observers had detected in Chunking early in the war had fatally sapped the powers of resistance of the Kuomintang." This excerpt is taken from the 1949 State Department "White Paper" which:

    1. led to a closer relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union
    2. temporarily quieted the charges of Senator Joseph McCarthy that there were active communists in the State Department
    3. augmented bitter domestic controversy about United States policy in the Far East
    4. convinced the "China Lobby" that the downfall of Nationalist China had been inevitable

  19. The United States government measured its success in Vietnam according to:

    1. number of bombs dropped on target
    2. enemy body count
    3. periodic "combination polls" among American soldiers and South Vietnamese civilians
    4. square miles of territory captured

  20. "United States foreign policy is often formulated in the belief that an earlier policy was mistaken." All of the following pairs of events support this statement except the:

    1. promulgation of President Woodrow Wilson's neutrality policy during the period of 1914-1917 and the passage of the Neutrality Acts of the mid-1930s
    2. announcement of the Open Door policy in 1900 and the refusal to recognize Japan's control over Manchuria in 1932
    3. rejection of the Treaty of Versailles following World War I and the ratification of the United Nations charter after World War II
    4. acquiescence in the Munich Agreement in 1938 and the decision to intervene in South Korea in 1950

  21. The main reason the United States sent troops to Somalia in 1992 was to:

    1. escort refugees out of Somalia to other countries
    2. monitor government elections
    3. block drug smuggling to the Western Hemisphere
    4. protect deliveries of food and relief supplies to needy Somalis

  22. The Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco became known as a mecca for:

    1. the sudden flourishing of art and sculpture during the 1920s
    2. especially violent gang wars between racial groups during the late nineteenth century
    3. the hippies of the Counterculture Era
    4. banking and investment operations during the 1930s

  23. All of the following were characteristic of reform activity during both the Progressive Era and the 1960s except:

    1. feminists advocated reform in the area of women's rights
    2. civil rights for blacks were supported by the federal government
    3. governmental reform initiatives were curtailed by war
    4. reform occurred despite the absence of severe economic depression


  24. The message conveyed by the 2002 drawing above is that:

    1. the administration of President Bill Clinton failed to adequately fund public education
    2. no positive correlation occurs between academic achievement and resources provided for education
    3. there exists a growing discrepancy between dollars allocated for education and expectations of teachers and the educational system in America
    4. education resources provided by the federal government are being mishandled in many states

  25. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is significant because it:

    1. declared that the United States would continue to provide air and naval support but withdraw all ground troops in the Vietnam War
    2. led to an alliance with Japan and Taiwan to limit communist influence throughout Asia
    3. authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to take any measures necessary to repel attacks against United States forces and allies in Southeast Asia
    4. initiated the "peace without victory" concept of President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to end American involvement in the Vietnam conflict

  26. The Republican Party's "Contract with America" of the 1990s called for:

    1. decreased defense spending
    2. welfare reform
    3. stricter immigration laws
    4. increased aid to education

  27. The United States responded to the successful orbiting of Sputnik in 1957 by:

    1. expanding federal aid to education
    2. calling for an increase of NATO forces throughout Europe
    3. immediately launching its own manned space vehicle, Friendship 7, while at the same time reducing cooperation with the Soviet Union in space projects
    4. creating the Central Intelligence Agency to more covertly monitor Soviet activities

  28. The containment policy articulated by George F. Kennan in 1947 proposed a/an:

    1. extensive propaganda campaign to sabotage the international image of the Soviet Union
    2. active effort by the United States to block expansion of the Soviet Union's global influence
    3. plan to expand Western Europe's economic independence from the United States
    4. aggressive commitment by the United States to free Eastern Europe from communist pressure

  29. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Bakke v. Regents of the University of California (1972) challenged the concept of:

    1. urban renewal programs
    2. affirmative action measures
    3. guidelines for equal gender pay
    4. racial quotas for admissions

  30. The goals of Martin Luther King, Jr. are best characterized as:

    1. peaceful integration of the races in all areas of society
    2. creation of a church-centered black community removed from the oppression of whites
    3. peaceful separation of blacks into powerful economic and political groups
    4. constant and, if necessary, violent political and social action to achieve long-sought justice

  31. United States immigration policies during the 1950s reflected all of the following except:

    1. desire to provide a haven for those fleeing communist regimes
    2. need to rush development of the United State missile program by admitting a selected number of scientists and technicians
    3. attempt to assist persons displaced and children orphaned due to World War II
    4. equalizing immigration between Asian and European countries

  32. Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigative tactics found support among many Americans because:

    1. evidence clearly substantiated McCarthy's charges against the government
    2. McCarthy was supported by both President Dwight D. Eisenhower and former President Harry S Truman
    3. there was widespread fear of communist infiltration of the United States
    4. McCarthy worked closely and carefully with the FBI

  33. In conducting international affairs, President Ronald Reagan:

    1. favored a more active and assertive role for the United States in opposing communism throughout the world
    2. denounced Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost
    3. sought to pressure friendly dictatorship governments to enact internal democratic reforms
    4. pursued a policy of détente with the Soviet Union, constantly seeking additional arms control agreements

  34. The issue President Jimmy Carter called "the moral equivalent of war" was the:

    1. energy shortage
    2. Iranian hostage crisis
    3. extent of poverty in America
    4. sagging economy

  35. One of the fundamental changes in international politics brought about by World War II was the:

    1. reduction of the Western European nations to the status of second-class powers
    2. triumph of isolationism in United States foreign policy
    3. sudden independence gained by many former European colonies in Africa
    4. formation of a world governing body under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  36. Richard Nixon's political resurrection culminating in his election to the presidency in 1968 can be partly attributed to:

    1. dissension within the Democratic Party concerning American involvement in Vietnam
    2. skillful deflection of public outcry over the Watergate scandal
    3. his great popularity as Vice-President under Dwight D. Eisenhower
    4. marked departure of black voters to align with the Republican Party

  37. All of the following measures were intended to foster improved relations with Latin America except the:

    1. 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    2. Good Neighbor policy under President Franklin D. Roosevelt
    3. Alliance for Progress program initiated by President John F. Kennedy
    4. Panama Canal Treaty of 1978 under President Jimmy Carter

  38. The primary difference between the United States interference in Guatemala in 1954 and previous interventions by the United States in Central America was that the Guatemalan affair:

    1. was not authorized by Congress
    2. involved covert action by the Central Intelligence Agency
    3. was mounted primarily for economic motives
    4. received the cooperation of the Organization of American States

  39. One of the goals of Reaganomics was to:

    1. outsource United States manufacturing to Asian countries
    2. redistribute income to the bottom fifth of wage earners
    3. encourage private investment through tax cuts for businesses and the wealthy
    4. cut the national debt by reducing the United States nuclear arsenal

  40. All of the following are reasons why the United States lost the war effort in Vietnam except:

    1. North Vietnam's superior armed forces
    2. unsatisfactory American military strategy
    3. demoralizing effect of Viet Cong guerrilla tactics
    4. poorly trained South Vietnamese troops


  41. The best conclusion that can be drawn from the cartoon above regarding the 1972 presidential campaign is:

    1. several leading Democrats are poised to defeat the incumbent Richard Nixon
    2. the full involvement of the Nixon administration in the Watergate scandal has not yet become public knowledge
    3. Senator George McGoven of South Dakota is the apparent leader in a field of several hopefuls for the Democratic Party's nomination
    4. the Democrats are in apparent disarray, including confusion over party leadership

  42. The publication of the so-called "Pentagon Papers" revealed that:

    1. President Lyndon B. Johnson favored ending the war, but gave in to the wishes of his Joint Chiefs of Staff to escalate the fighting
    2. American bombing of North Vietnam exceeded levels dropped on Germany and Japan during World War II
    3. government leaders, including former Presidents, had frequently deceived the American public regarding conditions in Vietnam
    4. America was actually on the verge of a solid military victory when President Richard Nixon settled instead for a negotiated peace

  43. In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, President Jimmy Carter did all of the following except:

    1. invoked the SEATO alliance
    2. called for a boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
    3. imposed economic sanctions on the Soviet Union
    4. withdrew SALT II from consideration by the Senate

  44. Soon after his elevation to the White House, Lyndon B. Johnson boasted that "civil rightsers are going to have to wear sneakers to keep up with me." In truth, LBJ's presidential record on civil rights is best summarized as:

    1. enactment of sweeping civil rights legislation granting the federal government new powers to fight segregation
    2. congressional opposition, especially by southern die-hard segregationists, crippled LBJ's attempts to extend the solid civil rights successes of the Kennedy administration
    3. few lasting positive results in spite of excessive government spending to enact measures and frequent use of federal troops to force action
    4. emphasis on increased educational opportunities for blacks, but failure to address economic concerns

  45. All of the following produced sharp declines in presidential popularity except:

    1. Gerald Ford's pardon of former President Richard Nixon for his part in the Watergate scandal
    2. the Iran-Contra weapons-for-hostages arrangement, which apparently transpired without White House knowledge during the final years of Ronald Reagan's presidency
    3. inability of the Carter administration to solve the prolonged Iranian hostage crisis
    4. the bold American military invasion of Panama, ordered by George Bush, which resulted in the capture of drug-trafficking General Manuel Noriega and installation of a new Panamanian government

  46. One of the concerns over the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 was:

    1. many Americans felt the measure threatened individual privacy rights
    2. the law permitted censorship of newspapers as well as television and radio broadcasts
    3. membership in subversive organizations, such as the Socialist Party, was banned
    4. the law allowed for an automatic military draft if the President declared a national emergency

  47. "Sex is a biological fact.... Women cannot be made men by act of the legislature or by amendment of the Federal Constitution. This is not a matter of today or tomorrow. The inherent differences are permanent. Women will always need many laws different from those needed by men." This statement would most likely have been made by:

    1. lawmakers who voted for the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
    2. supporters of Title IX
    3. the majority decision in Roe v. Wade
    4. founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW)

  48. The executive agency created by the George W. Bush administration is the:

    1. Department of Homeland Security
    2. Federal Reserve Board
    3. Environmental Protection Agency
    4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  49. The statement which best summarizes how the United States responded to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 is:

    1. "the United States organized an international coalition including countries from the Middle East to liberate Kuwait"
    2. "after NATO's refusal to lend military support, the United States appealed to its allies outside NATO for assistance"
    3. "the United States acted unilaterally in Operation Desert Storm"
    4. "the United States refused to engage Iraq in any military action, instead working strictly through diplomatic channels to bring resolution"

  50. All of the following resulted from the embargo on oil exports declared by the Organization of Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 except:

    1. consumer gasoline prices increased sharply
    2. America faced an "energy crisis" over the next several years
    3. the United States government adopted a foreign policy of considering any threat to its oil supply as a threat to national security
    4. America's oil consumption soared